Things You Should Know About Islamic Banking Methods

The origin of Islamic banking dates to the very beginning of Islam in the seventh century. The prophet Muhammad’s first wife, Khadija, was a merchant, and he acted as an agent for her business, using many of the same principles used in contemporary Islamic banking. In the Middle Ages, trade and business activity in the Muslim world relied on Islamic banking principles, and these ideas spread throughout Spain, the Mediterranean and the Baltic States, arguably providing some of the basis for western banking principles. In the 1960s to the 1970s, Islamic banking resurfaced in the modern world.

This banking system is based on the principles of Islamic law, also referred to as Sharia law, and guided by Islamic economics. The two basic principles are the sharing of profit and loss and the prohibition of the collection and payment of interest by lenders and investors. Islamic banks neither charge nor pay interest in a conventional way where the payment of interest is set in advance and viewed as the predetermined price of credit or the reward for money deposited. Islamic law accepts the capital reward for loan providers only on a profit- and loss-sharing basis, working on the principle of variable return connected to the actual productivity and performances of the financed project and the real economy. Another important aspect is its entrepreneurial feature. The system is focused not only on financial expansion but also on physical expansion of economic production and services. In practice, there is a higher concentrated on investment activities such as equity financing, trade financing and real estate investments. Since this system of banking is grounded in Islamic principles, all the undertakings of the banks follow Islamic morals. Therefore, it could be said that financial transactions within Islamic banking are a culturally distinct form of ethical investing. For example, investments involving alcohol, gambling, pork, etc. are prohibited.

For the last four decades, the Islamic banking system has experienced a tremendous evolution from a small niche visible only in Islamic countries to a profitable, dynamic and resilient competitor at an international level. Their size around the world was estimated to be close to $850 billion at the end of 2008 and is expected to grow by around 15 percent annually. While system of banking remains the main component of the Islamic financial system, the other elements, such as Takaful (Islamic insurance companies), mutual funds and Sukuk (Islamic bonds and financial certificates), have witnessed strong global growth, too. Per a reliable estimate, the Islamic financial industry now amounts to over $1 trillion. Moreover, the opportunity for growth in this sector is considerable. It is estimated that the system could double in size within a decade if the past performances are continued in the future.

 

How To Improve Your Financial

There is no way to avoid dealing with money and finances these days. Therefore you should try to learn as much as possible to help you make good financial decisions and to increase your confidence about money.

When you make a budget, it should be realistic regarding your income and spending habits. Be sure to include all of your income such as alimony, child support, rental income, or any other. Always use your net income not your gross earnings in these calculations. Once you have the numbers, you can consider how to adjust your spending to stay within your income range. To maintain your budget never exceed your incoming cash flow.

The next step is to total up your expenses, and you should make a list of all monthly expenses. Your list should document each and every expense that you have whether it expense, spontaneous or just a one time expense. Remember that this list needs to have a complete breakdown of your costs. Be sure to add in expenses that you have from restaurant dinners and fast food as well as grocery bills. Reduce expenses linked to your cars, such as gas and insurance. If you have payments that you make quarterly or less frequently, divide them up to reflect a monthly payment. Make sure you include incidental expenses, for instance, baby sitters or storage unit rentals. Try to have the most accurate list possible.

Now that you have a good idea of your income and expenditures, you can start planning a new budget. Look at each expenditure on your list, and decide what you could do without. If you normally buy coffee from a cafe, calculate how much money you would save on a weekly basis if you bought it from McDonald’s instead, or made it at home. Exactly what and how much you are willing to compromise is completely up to you. The first step is identifying expenses that are not necessary so you can use the money for something else.

If your utility bills are rising, you may want to upgrade your appliances to save some money. Upgrading to well-fitted double-glazed windows, for example, can reduce your heating bill dramatically. Besides you can repair any leaky pipes and only run the dishwasher with a full load.

Swap old, inefficient appliances for those that use less energy. Although doing so may cost you some money upfront, over the long-term you will save a fair penny on your utility bills. Unplug the appliances you do not need. In time you will notice significant savings in your energy consumption.

You can make a significant decrease in your heating and cooling bills by improving your insulation, as well as the roof above it. Insulation or roofing issues can be very costly, as maintaining a regular temperature in the home can be expensive. If you invest in the upgrades, it will save you a lot of money in the long run.

Using these tips not only saves you money, but it also helps you start bringing your budget under control. An expensive upgrade can save a lot of money in lowering electricity or water bills. This is one way that you can make your budget more reliable.

 

The Investable US Commercial Property vs other asset classes.

With the world still coming to terms with a major reformulation of the political order in Europe, and preparing for what promise to be unpredictable electoral contests in Germany and the US – investors currently face an uncertain world. Increasingly frequent terror attacks in Europe and elsewhere are fuelling a rise in right-wing populism and protectionism that threatens to destabilise the global economic order.

The confirmation of real estate mogul Donald Trump as candidate for the Republican Party in the US is a case in point, with Trump threatening to pull the US out of the World Trade Organisation in order to protect jobs in the US from the forces of globalisation.

In Europe also, protectionist instincts will need to challenged as new trading arrangements are determined with the UK and negotiations continue around the troubled Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership with the US.

The picture is not clear then, and there are many moving parts which look set to disrupt markets over the medium term. So where should investors looking to hedge against current uncertainty turn?

Building confidence

While there is much uncertainty, and while stock markets globally took a hit following Brexit and are watching developments nervously, recent data from leading investment house MSCI could give pause for thought for those who think the days of double-digit returns are over.

A report issued by MSCI in February revealed that US commercial property funds in 2015 grew a staggering 15.6% according to the PREA/IPD US Quarterly Property Fund Index1. Even more remarkably, investments in US commercial property have seen a cumulative return of 129% over the past six years.

In fact, US commercial property has outperformed other asset classes, including US bonds (up 4.39% over the period 2011 to 2015), stocks (up 13.45%), corporate bonds (up 4.72%) and commodities (down 10.93%)2.

Simon Fairchild, an Executive Director at MSCI puts it like this;

“U.S. real estate open-end funds have produced double-digit returns for six straight years. This period encompasses the remarkable recovery from the doldrums of 2008/2009.”

But Brexit happened, a Trump Presidency looks far less unlikely than it did at the beginning of the year and growth continues to slow in China – surely these themes will change the dynamic? A key skill for any investor is being able to recognise opportunity – even in times of uncertainty. Market watchers should note of recent announcements from Juwai – China’s biggest international property portal – which is reporting interest in UK property having climbed 40% since the Brexit vote.

So, what is driving growth and interest, even against a backdrop of such uncertainty?

Market fundamentals

While uncertainty abounds, savvy investors realise that market fundamentals don’t change on the back of a single political development. And as in the UK, the fundamental forces at work in the US’ commercial property market create a sound environment for investors.

Global pressures and uncertainty are likely to keep interest rates in the US low over the medium term, ensuring a steady flow of foreign money into the US economy. This in turn will continue to drive demand, and ensure good returns for those willing to invest in supplying this dynamic.

One opportunity to do so are the investments from the Rycal Group, offering entry to the Carlton James Group who have an investment portfolio focused on the hospitality sector in the US. Carlton James been investing in this market for a while now, delivering returns averaging 17% for the last five years. With a strategy based upon wide-ranging geographical intelligence, Carlton James look also for additional Revenue Generators – for example taking into account a development’s proximity to highways, malls and economic infrastructure – as well as local economics.

Simon Calton, CEO of the Carlton James Sky Watch Inn Group and Rycal Group, says: “Geopolitical upheaval and changes of government have an immediate impact on share prices and investor confidence and can lead to rapid and unnerving market fluctuations. We saw this in the immediate aftermath of Brexit and we should expect more as November’s Presidential elections in the US draw nearer.

“What we have also seen in the subsequent weeks however, is these fluctuations correcting themselves as they adapt to the new reality. The lesson is that investors should keep an eye on the longer-term, and the market fundamentals.

“The US economy remains buoyant and, with the world unsure as to the status of relations between the UK and the EU, is likely to benefit from investors looking for a greater degree of certainty than is currently available in Europe.

“Rycal have a strong track record of making our investments work by developing detailed exit strategies, a diverse portfolio of properties and deep investment intelligence, and we expect Carlton James to be a real source of growth over coming years.”

All About World Of Finance

Getting a taste of the real world jobs out there that pertain to your area of study can be an eye opening experience. You will work side by side those that do this type of work day in and day out. Such information can further fuel your passion for the career path you are on. It may help y to narrow down the specific area of the field you wish to go into.

With a Citi summer internship, you will have an unforgettable opportunity to get onboard for such learning experiences. These positions are limited though so you need to pay attention to the deadlines for applying. You also need to submit all of the requested materials with your application. Otherwise, you may not get that position you really wanted.

Large Financial Institution

They are one of the largest financial institutions available. They want to do their part to help encourage others to get involved in the world of finance. There is a wide spectrum of types of jobs that fall under the umbrella of their services. The various Citi summer internship areas include finance, technology, human resources, global transaction services, and commodities.

Apply for the ones that you are the most interested in. If you apply for more than one, you can only select one to take part in. However, applying in more than one area does improve your chances of being selected. Your dilemma at that point would be deciding which one to accept if you accepted for more than one. That is a bridge you can cross when you get to it!

Who can Apply?

You are eligible to apply for a Citi summer internship if you a junior or senior in college, you are a graduate student, or you have recently graduated from college. In addition to business skills and experience, they are looking for those who excel in the areas of communication and integrity. A passion for a career path in business is a strong asset they look at when deciding.

You can apply for a position in the USA, Africa, Europe, or the Middle East. They have a very diverse business culture with locations all over the world. Being able to work in your location or being able to get an internship in a location you wish to travel can be very appealing.

Payment

It is also encouraging that you will get paid for your participation in a Citi summer internship. This is good news because many companies offer internships that aren’t paid. They feel the experience they teach you is compensation enough. Being able to work for an excellent company like this and get paid to do so is the icing on the cake!

The amount you will earn depends on where you work and the common entry level salary offered by Citi Bank in that area. The specifics about work hours and payment for the position can be discussed once the offer is extended to you.

Application that Rocks

As you can imagine, there are plenty of people applying for the various opportunities. You need an application that rocks to be considered for one of the Citi summer internship positions. Complete the application neatly and providing as much information as possible. Your supporting documents including your resume and cover letter need to be exceptional.

Focus on sharing your experiences, your education, and your future goals relating to the world of business. You will need to provide letters of recommendation so ask for those early. Get them from professionals you have worked with, long term family friends, past employers, and others who know your work ethic and character. The Citi summer internship can be a dream come true!